Blue Zones Institute: Research

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Ajala, O., P. English, and J. Pinkney. “Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Different Dietary Approaches to the Management of Type 2 Diabetes.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (March 2013), 505–16.

Akisaka, M., L. Asato, Y. C. Chan, M. Suzuki, T. Uezato, and S. Uamamoto. “Energy and Nutrient Intakes of Okinawan Centenarians.” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (June 1996), 241–48.

Antonogeorgos, G., D. B. Panagiotakos, C. Pitsavos, C. Papageorgiou, C. Chrysohoou, G. N. Papadimitriou, and C. Stefanadis. “Understanding the Role of Depression and Anxiety on Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Using Structural Equation Modeling; The Mediating Effect of the Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity: The ATTICA Study.” Annals of Epidemiology (September 2012), 630–37.

Arakaki, H., and H. Sho. “Nutritional Survey on Kumejima.” The Science Bulletin of the Division of Agriculture, Home Economics & Engineering, University of the Ryukyus (December 1962), 327–34.

Bazzano, L. A., J. He, L. G. Ogden, C. Loria, S. Vupputuri, L. Myers, and P. K. Whelton. “Legume Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in U.S. Men and Women: NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study.” Archives of Internal Medicine (November 26, 2001), 2573–78.

Bazzano, L. A., A. M. Thompson, M. T. Tees, C. H. Nguyen, and D. M. Winham. “Non-Soy Legume Consumption Lowers Cholesterol Levels: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases (February 2011), 94–103.

Beezhold, B. L., C. S. Johnston, and D. R. Daigle. “Vegetarian Diets Are Associated With Healthy Mood States: A Cross-Sectional Study in Seventh-Day Adventist Adults.” Nutrition Journal (2010) 9:26.

Buettner, Dan. “The Secrets of Living Longer.” National Geographic (November 2005), 2-27.

Butler, Robert N. “The inequality of longevity: Life expectancy gap widens between industrialized world and developing nations.” Geriatrics (December 1999).

“Can We Live to 150?” Popular Science (November 1993), 77-82.

“Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Facts and Figures,” American Cancer Society (2007). Available online at STT_1x_Cancer_Facts__Figures_2007.asp

Carbini, L. “Evoluzione del comportamento alimentare nei sardi dal secondo dopoguerra ad oggi.” In L’Uomo in Sardegna, ed. Giovanni Floris. Zonza Editori, 1998. 153–73.

Carbini, L., T. Lantini, A. Peretti Padalino, and A. L. Scarpa. “Nutritional Surveys in Some Centers of 3 Provinces of Sardinia. II. Nutrition and Tradition” [in Italian]. Bolletino della Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale (January 30, 1981), 226–28.

Carru, C., G. M. Pes, L. Deiana, G. Baggio, C. Franceschi, D. Lio, C. R. Balistreri, G. Candore, G. Colonna-Romano, and C. Caruso. “Association Between the HFE Mutations and Longevity: A Study in Sardinian Population.” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (April 2003), 529–32.

Caselli, G., and R. M. Lipsi. “Survival Differences Among the Oldest Old in Sardinia: Who, What, Where, and Why?” Demographic Research (March 2006), 267–94.

Caselli, G., L. Pozzi, J. W. Vaupel, L. Deiana, G. Pes, C. Carru, C. Franceschi, and G. Baggio. “Family Clustering in Sardinian Longevity: A Genealogical Approach.” Experimental Gerontology (August 2006), 727–36.

Christakis, N. A., and J. H. Fowler. “The spread of obesity in a large social net- work over 32 years.” The New England Journal of Medicine (July 26, 2007), 370-79.

Chrysohoou, C., D. B. Panagiotakos, P. Aggelopoulos, C. M. Kastorini, I. Kehagia, C. Pitsavos, and C. Stefanadis. “The Mediterranean Diet Contributes to the Preservation of Left Ventricular Systolic Function and to the Long-Term Favorable Prognosis of Patients Who Have Had an Acute Coronary Event.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (July 2010), 47–54.

Chrysohoou, C., C. Pitsavos, D. Panagiotakos, J. Skoumas, G. Lazaros, E. Oikonomou, N. Galiatsatos, M. Striggou, M. Xynogala, and C. Stefanadis. “Long-Term Fish Intake Preserves Kidney Function in Elderly Individuals: The Ikaria Study.” Journal of Renal Nutrition (July 2013), e75–82.

Chrysohoou, C., J. Skoumas, C. Pitsavos, C. Masoura, G. Siasos, N. Galiatsatos, T. Psaltopoulou, et al. “Long-Term Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Reduces the Prevalence of Hyperuricaemia in Elderly Individuals, Without Known Cardiovascular Disease: The Ikaria Study.” Maturitas (September 2011), 58–64.

Chrysohoou, C., G. Tsitsinakis, G. Siassos, T. Psaltopoulou, N. Galiatsatos, V. Metaxa, G. Lazaros, et al. “Fish Consumption Moderates Depressive Symptomatology in Elderly Men and Women from the IKARIA Study.” Cardiology Research and Practice (2011), article ID 219578.

Clarkson, Thomas B. “Soy, Soy Phytoestrogens, and Cardiovascular Disease.” Supplement: Fourth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. Journal of Nutrition (March 2002), 566S-569S.

Corder, Roger, W. Mullen, N. Q. Khan, S. C. Marks, E. G. Wood, M. J. Carrier, and A. Crozier. “Oenology: Red Wine Procyanidins and Vascular Health.” Nature (November 30, 2006), 566.

Corliss, Richard, and Michael D. Lemonick. “How to Live to Be 100” Time (August 30, 2004), 40.

Covas, M. I., V. Konstantinidou, and M. Fitó. “Olive Oil and Cardiovascular Health.” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology (December 2009), 477–82.

Craun, G. F., and R. L. Calderon. “How to interpret epidemiological associations.” in Rolling Revision of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (draft for review and comments). World Health Organization (August 2004). Available online at

Darmadi-Blackberry, I., M. L. Wahlqvist, A. Kouris-Blazos, B. Steen, W. Lukito, Y. Horie, and K. Horie. “Legumes: The Most Important Dietary Predictor of Survival in Older People of Different Ethnicities.” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (June 2004), 217–20.


Davinelli, S., D. C. Willcox, and G. Scapagnini. “Extending Healthy Ageing: Nutrient-Sensitive Pathway and Centenarian Population.” Immunity and Ageing (2012) 9:9.

Deiana, L., L. Ferrucci, G. M. Pes, C. Carru, G. Delitala, A. Ganau, S. Mariotti, et al. “AKEntAnnos: The Sardinia Study of Extreme Longevity.” Aging (Milano) (June 1999), 142–49.

Flores, M. “Food Patterns in Central America and Panama.” In Tradition, Science and Practice in Dietetics: Proceedings of the International Congress of Dietetics, July 10–14, 1961. Newman Books, 1961.

Flores, M., and J. Aranas-Pastor. “Evaluacion dietetica a nivel nacional en Costa Rica: combios de una decada.” Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricin (September 1980), 432–50.

Flores-Mateo, G., D. Rojas-Rueda, J. Basora, E. Ros, and J. Salas-Salvadó. “Nut Intake and Adiposity: Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (June 2013), 1346–55.

Fontana, Luigi, Dennis T. Villareal, Edward P. Weiss, Susan B. Racette, et al. “Calorie restriction or exercise: effects on coronary heart disease risk factors. A randomized, controlled trial.” American Journal of Physiology (July 2007), E197-E202.

Ford, P. A., K. Jaceldo-Siegl, J. W. Lee, W. Youngberg, and S. Tonstad. “Intake of Mediterranean Foods Associated With Positive Affect and Low Negative Affect.” Journal of Psychosomatic Research (February 2013), 142–48.

Foreyt, John P. “Diet, Behavior Modification, and Obesity: Nine Questions Most Often Asked by Physicians.” Consultant (June 1990), 53-6.

Franceschi, C., L. Motta, S. Valensin, R. Rapisarda, A. Franzone, M. Berardelli, M. Motta, et al. “Do Men and Women Follow Different Trajectories to Reach Extreme Longevity?” Italian Multicenter Study on Centenarians (IMUSCE).” Aging (Milano) (April 2000), 77–84.

Fraser, G. E. “Associations Between Diet and Cancer, Ischemic Heart Disease, and All-Cause Mortality in Non-Hispanic White California Seventh-Day Adventists.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (September 1999), 532S–538S.

Fraser, G. E. “Vegetarian Diets: What Do We Know of Their Effects on Common Chronic Diseases?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (May 2009), 1607S–1612S.

Fraser, G. E., and D. J. Shavlik. “Risk Factors for All-Cause and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in the Oldest-Old: The Adventist Health Study.” Archives of Internal Medicine (October 27, 1997), 2249–58.

Fraser, Gary E., and David J. Shavlik. “Ten Years of Life: Is It a Matter of Choice?” Archives of Internal Medicine (July 9, 2001), 1645-52. Available online at &fp=1645&view=full

Gavrilova, N. S., and L. A. Gavrilov. “Comments on Dietary Restriction, Okinawa Diet and Longevity.” Gerontology (April 2012), 221–23.

Haber, Carole. “Life Extension and History: The Continual Search for the Fountain of Youth.” The Journals of Gerontology: Series A (June 2004), B515-22.

Hailu, A., S. F. Knutsen, and G. E. Fraser. “Associations Between Meat Consumption and the Prevalence of Degenerative Arthritis and Soft Tissue Disorders in the Adventist Health Study, California U.S.A.” Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging (January–February 2006), 7–14.

He, Wan, Manisha Segupta, Victoria A. Velkoff, and Kimberly A. DeBarros. “65 + in the United States: 2005.” U.S. Census Bureau (December 2005). Available online at

Heilbronn, Leonie K., Lilian de Jonge, Medlyn I. Frisard, James P. DeLany, et al. “Effect of 6-Month Calorie Restriction on Biomarkers of Longevity, Metabolic Adaptation, and Oxidative Stress in Overweight Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” JAMA (April 5, 2006), 1539-48.

Heilbronn, L. K., and E. Ravussin. “Calorie Restriction and Aging: Review of the Literature and Implications for Studies in Humans.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (September 2003), 361–69.

Herskind, Anne Maria, Matthew McGue, Niels V. Holm, Thorkild I. A. Sørensen, Bent Harvald, and James W. Vaupel. “The heritability of human longevity: A population-based study of 2,872 Danish twin pairs born 1870–1900.” Human Genetics (March 1996) 319-23.

Hilton, Lisette. “Tobacco isolated as cause of skin aging.” Dermatology Times (September 2002), 20: 23.

Hjelmborg, Jacob v.B., Ivan Iachine, Axel Skytthe, James W. Vaupel, Matt McGue, Markku Koskenvuo, Jaakko Kaprio, Nancy L. Pedersen, and Kaare Christensen. Genetic influence on human lifespan and longevity.” Human Genetics (April 2006), 312-21.

Huang, T., B. Yang, J. Zheng, G. Li, M. L. Wahlqvist, and D. Li. “Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Vegetarians: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism (June 2012), 233–40.

Hunt, I. F., N. J. Murphy, and C. Henderson. “Food and Nutrient Intake of Seventh-Day Adventist Women.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (September 1988), 850–51.

Hutchins, A. M., D. M. Winham, and S. V. Thompson. “Phaseolus Beans: Impact on Glycaemic Response and Chronic Disease Risk in Human Subjects.” British Journal of Nutrition (August 2012), S52–65.

Ikarian Study, 2009, nutrition data, unpublished. Supplied to author by lead study researcher, Dr. Christina Chrysohoou.

Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) and the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Development (ICNND). Tables 3, 4, and 106. In Nutritional Evaluation of the Population of Central America and Panama, 1965–1967.

Jaceldo-Siegl, K., J. Fan, J. Sabaté, S. F. Knutsen, E. Haddad, W. L. Beeson, R. P. Herring, T. L. Butler, H. Bennett, and G. E. Fraser. “Race-Specific Validation of Food Intake Obtained From a Comprehensive FFQ: The Adventist Health Study-2.” Public Health Nutrition (November 2011), 1988–97.

Jaceldo-Siegl, K., E. Haddad, K. Oda, G. E. Fraser, and J. Sabaté. “Tree Nuts Are Inversely Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: The Adventist Health Study-2.” PLOS ONE (January 8, 2014), e85133.

Kagawa Y. “Impact of Westernization on the Nutrition of Japanese: Changes in Physique, Cancer, Longevity and Centenarians.” Preventive Medicine (June 1978), 205–217.

Kavouras, S. A., D. B. Panagiotakos, C. Pitsavos, C. Chrysohoou, G. Arnaoutis, Y. Skoumas, and C. Stefanadis. “Physical Activity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity: The ATTICA Study.” Cardiology Research and Practice (2011), article ID 248626.

Kelly, J. H., Jr., and J. Sabaté. “Nuts and Coronary Heart Disease: An Epidemiological Perspective.” British Journal of Nutrition (November 2006), S61–67.

Kemper, Peter, Harriet L. Komisar, and Lisa Alecxih. “Long-Term Care Over an Uncertain Future: What Can Current Retirees Expect?” Inquiry (Winter 2005– 2006), 335-50.

Key, T. J., G. E. Fraser, M. Thorogood, P. N. Appleby, V. Beral, G. Reeves, M. L. Burr, et al. “Mortality in Vegetarians and Nonvegetarians: Detailed Findings From a Collaborative Analysis of 5 Prospective Studies.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (September 1999), 516S–524S.

Khazrai, Y. M., G. Defeudis, and P. Pozzilli. “Effect of Diet on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review.” Diabetes-Metabolism Research and Reviews (March 2014), 24–33.

Lasa, A., J. Miranda, M. Bulló, R. Casas, J. Salas-Salvadó, I. Larretxi, R. Estruch, V. Ruiz-Gutiérrez, and M. P. Portillo. “Comparative Effect of Two Mediterranean Diets Versus a Low-Fat Diet on Glycaemic Control in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Epub February 12, 2014) [ahead of print].

Licastro, Federico, Giuseppina Candore, Domenico Lio, Elisa Porcellini, Giuseppina Colonna-Romano, Claudio Franceschi, and Calogero Caruso. “Innate Immunity and Inflammation in Ageing: A Key for Understanding Age-Related Diseases.” Immunity & Ageing (May 18, 2005). Available online at http://www.immunity

Lichtenstein, Alice H., et al. “Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Revision 2006: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee.” Circulation (2006), 82-96. Available online at cgi/content/short/114/1/82

Lio, D., G. M. Pes, C. Carru, F. Listì, V. Ferlazzo, G. Candore, G. Colonna-Romano, et al. “Association Between the HLA-DR Alleles and Longevity: A Study in Sardinian Population.” Experimental Gerontology (March 2003), 313–17.

Lousuebsakul-Matthews, V., D. L. Thorpe, R. Knutsen, W. L. Beeson, G. E. Fraser, and S. F. Knutsen. “Legumes and Meat Analogues Consumption Are Associated With Hip Fracture Risk Independently of Meat Intake Among Caucasian Men and Women: The Adventist Health Study-2.” Public Health Nutrition (Epub October 8, 2013) [ahead of print], 10 pp.

Loutrari, H., et al. “Mastic Oil from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia Inhibits Growth and Survival of Human K562 Leukemia Cells and Attenuates Angiogenesis.” Nutrition and Cancer (2006), 86-93.

MacMillan, Amanda. “Will You Live to 100?” Prevention (May 2007), 56.

Mano, R., A. Ishida, Y. Ohya, H. Todoriki, S. Takishita. “Dietary Intervention With Okinawan Vegetables Increased Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Healthy Young Women.” Atherosclerosis (June 2009), 544–48.

Mariotti, Stefano, Paolo Sansoni, Guiseppe Barbesino, Patrizio Caturegli, Daniela Monti, Andrea Cossarizza, Tamara Giacomelli, Giovanni Passeri, Umberto Fagiolo, Aldo Pinchera, and Claudio Franceschi. “Thyroid and other organ-specific autoantibodies in healthy centenarians.” Lancet (June 20, 1992), 1506-8.

Martin, Corby K., Stephen D. Anton, Heather Walden, Cheryl Arnett, et al. “Slower eating rate reduces the food intake of men, but not women: Implications for behavioral weight control.” Behaviour Research and Therapy (October 2007), 2349-59.

Martín-Peláez, S., M. I. Covas, M. Fitó, A. Kušar, and I. Pravst. “Health Effects of Olive Oil Polyphenols: Recent Advances and Possibilities for the Use of Health Claims.” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research (May 2013), 760–71.

McEvoy, C. T., N. Temple, and J. V. Woodside. “Vegetarian Diets, Low-Meat Diets and Health: A Review.” Public Health Nutrition (December 2012), 2287–94.

Melton, Lisa. “The Antioxidant Myth: A Medical Fairy Tale.” New Scientist (August 5, 2006), 40-3.

Micha, R., G. Michas, and D. Mozaffarian. “Unprocessed Red and Processed Meats and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease and Type 2 Diabetes: An Updated Review of the Evidence.” Current Atherosclerosis Reports (December 2012), 515–24.

Miyagi, S., N. Iwama, T. Kawabata, and K. Hasegawa. “Longevity and Diet in Okinawa, Japan: The Past, Present and Future.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health (July 2003), S3–9.

Mollard, R. C., A. Zykus, B. L. Luhovyy, M. F. Nunez, C. L. Wong, and G. H. Anderson. “The Acute Effects of a Pulse-Containing Meal on Glycaemic Responses and Measures of Satiety and Satiation Within and At a Later Meal.” British Journal of Nutrition (August 2012), 509–17.

Moriguchi, E. H., Y. Moriguchi, and Y. Yamori. “Impact of Diet on the Cardiovascular Risk Profile of Japanese Immigrants Living in Brazil: Contributions of the World Health Organization CARDIAC and MONALISA Studies.” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology (December 2004), S5–7.

Musick, Marc A., James S. House, and David R. Williams. “Attendance at Religious Services and Mortality in a National Sample.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior (June 2004), 198-213.

Nagourney, Eric. “A Cardiovascular Argument for Eating Whole Grains.” New York Times (May 15, 2007) F7. Available online at http://www.nytimes .com/2007/05/15/health/nutrition/15nutr.html.

Naska, A., E. Oikonomou, A. Trichopoulou, T. Psaltopoulou, and D. Trichopoulos. “Siesta in Healthy Adults and Coronary Mortality in the General Population.” Archives of Internal Medicine (February 12, 2007), 296–301.

Oikonomou, E., C. Chrysohoou, D. Tsiachris, G. Vogiatzi, E. Gialafos, G. Marinos, G. Tsitsinakis, et al. “Gender Variation of Exercise-Induced Anti-Arrhythmic Protection: The Ikaria Study.” QJM (December 2011), 1035–43.

O’Keefe, J. H., N. M. Gheewala, and J. O. O’Keefe. “Dietary Strategies for Improving Post-Prandial Glucose, Lipids, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Health.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology (January 22, 2008), 249–55.

Olshansky, S. Jay, Douglas Passaro, Ronald Hershow, et al. “Peering into the Future of American Longevity.” Discovery Medicine (April 2005), 130-34.

Olshansky, S. Jay, Leonard Hayflick, and Bruce A Carnes. “Position Statement on Human Aging.” The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medi- cal Sciences (2002), B292-7.

O’Neil, C. E., D. R. Keast, T. A. Nicklas, and V. L. Fulgoni 3rd. “Nut Consumption Is Associated With Decreased Health Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Syndrome in U.S. Adults: NHANES 1999–2004.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition (December 2011), 502–10.

Orlich, M. J., P. N. Singh, J. Sabaté, K. Jaceldo-Siegl, J. Fan, S. Knutsen, W. L. Beeson, and G. E. Fraser. “Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Mortality in Adventist Health Study 2.” JAMA Internal Medicine (July 8, 2013), 1230–38.

Panagiotakos, D. B., C. Chrysohoou, G. Siasos, K. Zisimos, J. Skoumas, C. Pitsavos, and C. Stefanadis. “Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Statistics of Oldest Old People (>80 Years) Living in Ikaria Island: The Ikaria Study.” Cardiology Research and Practice (2011), article ID 679187.

Passarino, G., P. A. Underhill, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, O. Semino, G. M. Pes, C. Carru, L. Ferrucci, et al. “Y Chromosome Binary Markers to Study the High Prevalence of Males in Sardinian Centenarians and the Genetic Structure of the Sardinian Population.” Human Heredity (September 2001), 136–39.

Perls, Thomas, Iliana V. Kohler, Stacy Andersen, Emily Schoenhofen, et al. “Survival of Parents and Siblings of Supercentenarians.” The Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. (2007), 1028-35.

Pes, G. M., D. Lio, C. Carru, L. Deiana, G. Baggio, C. Franceschi, L. Ferrucci, et al. “Association Between Longevity and Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms: A Study in Sardinian Centenarians.” Aging Clinical And Experimental Research (June 2004), 244–48.

Pes, G. M., F. Tolu, M. Poulain, A. Errigo, S. Masala, A. Pietrobelli, N. C. Battistini, and M. Maioli. “Lifestyle and Nutrition Related to Male Longevity in Sardinia: An Ecological Study.” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases (March 2013), 212–19.

Pettersen, B. J., R. Anousheh, J. Fan, K. Jaceldo-Siegl, and G. E. Fraser. “Vegetarian Diets and Blood Pressure Among White Subjects: Results From the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).” Public Health Nutrition (October 2012), 1909–16.

“Physiology: New studies on goats’ milk show it is more beneficial to health than cows’ milk.” Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week (August 18, 2007), 272.

Polidori, M. C., E. Mariani, G. Baggio, L. Deiana, C. Carru, G. M. Pes, R. Cecchetti, C. Franceschi, U. Senin, and P. Mecocci. “Different Antioxidant Profiles in Italian Centenarians: The Sardinian Peculiarity.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (July 2007), 922–24.

Poulain, Michel, Gianni Pes, C. Grasland, C. Carru, L. Ferrucci, G. Baggio, C. Franceschi, and L. Deiana. “Identification of a geographic area characterized by extreme longevity in the Sardinia island: the AKEA study.” Experimental Gerontology (September 2004), 1423-9.

Poulain, M., G. Pes, and L. Salaris. “A Population Where Men Live as Long as Women: Villagrande Strisaili, Sardinia.” Journal of Aging Research (2011), article ID 153756, 10 pp.

Pryde, M. M., and W. B. Kannel. “Efficacy of Dietary Behavior Modification for Preserving Cardiovascular Health and Longevity.” Cardiology Research and Practice (2011), article ID 820457.

Rebello, C. J., F. L. Greenway, and J. W. Finley. “A Review of the Nutritional Value of Legumes and Their Effects on Obesity and Its Related Co-Morbidities.” Obesity Review (Epub January 17, 2014) [ahead of print].

Rehkopf, D. H., W. H. Dow, L. Rosero-Bixby, J. Lin, E. S. Epel, and E. H. Blackburn. “Longer Leukocyte Telomere Length in Costa Rica’s Nicoya Peninsula: A Population-Based Study.” Experimental Gerontology (November 2013), 1266–73.

Rizza, W., N. Veronese, and L. Fontana. “What Are the Roles of Calorie Restriction and Diet Quality in Promoting Healthy Longevity?” Ageing Research Reviews (January 2014), 38–45.

Rizzo, N. S., K. Jaceldo-Siegl, J. Sabaté, and G. E. Fraser. “Nutrient Profiles of Vegetarian and Nonvegetarian Dietary Patterns.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (December 2013), 1610–19.

Rizzo, N. S., J. Sabaté, K. Jaceldo-Siegl, and G. E. Fraser. “Vegetarian Dietary Patterns Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: The Adventist Health Study 2.” Diabetes Care (May 2011), 1225–27.

Ros, E., L. C. Tapsell, and J. Sabaté. “Nuts and Berries for Heart Health.” Current Atherosclerosis Reports (November 2010), 397–406.

Rosero-Bixby, L. “The Exceptionally High Life Expectancy of Costa Rican Nonagenarians.” Demography (August 2008), 673–91.

Rosero-Bixby, L., and W. H. Dow. “Predicting Mortality With Biomarkers: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study for Elderly Costa Ricans.” Population Health Metrics (2012) 10:11.

Rosero-Bixby, L., W. H. Dow, and A. Laclé. “Insurance and Other Socioeconomic Determinants of Elderly Longevity in a Costa Rican Panel.” Journal of Biosocial Science (November 2005), 705–20.

Rowen, Robert Jay. “Artemisinin: From Malaria to Cancer Treatment” Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine (December 2004), 68.

Sabaté, J. “Nut Consumption, Vegetarian Diets, Ischemic Heart Disease Risk, and All-Cause Mor- tality: Evidence From Epidemiologic Studies.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (September 1999), 500S–503S.

Sabaté, J., K. Oda, and E. Ros. “Nut Consumption and Blood Lipid Levels: A Pooled Analysis of 25 Intervention Trials.” Archives of Internal Medicine (May 10, 2010), 821–27.

Salen, P., and M. de Lorgeril. “The Okinawan Diet: A Modern View of an Ancestral Healthy Lifestyle.” World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics (2011), 114–23.

Shibata, H., H. Nagai, H. Haga, S. Yasumura, T. Suzuki, and Y. Suyama. “Nutrition for the Japanese Elderly.” Nutrition and Health (April 1992), 165–75.

Sho, H. “History and Characteristics of Okinawan Longevity Food.” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (June 2001), 159–64.

Siasos, G., C. Chrysohoou, D. Tousoulis, E. Oikonomou, D. Panagiotakos, M. Zaromitidou, K. Zisimos, et al. “The Impact of Physical Activity on Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged and Elderly Subjects: The Ikaria Study.” Hellenic Journal of Cardiology (March–April 2013), 94–101.

Siasos, G., E. Oikonomou, C. Chrysohoou, D. Tousoulis, D. Panagiotakos, M. Zaromitidou, K. Zisimos, et al. “Consumption of a Boiled Greek Type of Coffee Is Associated With Improved Endothelial Function: The Ikaria Study.” Vascular Medicine (April 2013), 55–62.

“Simple Steps May Slow Aging.” Consumer Reports on Health (April 2007), 4-5.

Singh, P. N., E. Haddad, S. Tonstad, and G. E. Fraser. “Does Excess Body Fat Maintained After the Seventh Decade Decrease Life Expectancy?” Journal of the American Geriatric Society (June 2011), 1003–11.

Singh, P. N., J. Sabaté, and Gary Fraser. “Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (September 2003, supplement), 526S-532S.

Sofi, F., C. Macchi, R. Abbate, G. F. Gensini, and A. Casini. “Mediterranean Diet and Health Status: An Updated Meta-Analysis and a Proposal for a Literature-Based Adherence Score.” Public Health Nutrition (Epub November 29, 2013), 14 pp.

“State of Aging and Health in America 2007 Report.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and The Merck Company Foundation (2007). Available online at

Suzuki, M., M. Akisaka, I. Ashitomi, K. Higa, and H. Nozaki. “Abstract of Chronological Study Concerning ADL Among Okinawan Centenarians” [in Japanese]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi (June 1995); 32:416–23.

Suzuki, Makoto, Bradley J. Willcox, Craig D. Willcox. “Implications from and for Food Cultures for Cardiovascular Disease: Longevity.” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (June 2001), 165-71.

Suzuki, M., C. Willcox, and B. Willcox. “The Historical Context of Okinawan Longevity: Influence of the United States and Mainland Japan.” Okinawan Journal of American Studies (2007), 46–61.

Suzuki, M., D. C. Willcox, M. W. Rosenbaum, and B. J. Willcox. “Oxidative Stress and Longevity in Okinawa: An Investigation of Blood Lipid Peroxidation and Tocopherol in Okinawan Centenarians.” Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research (2010), article ID 380460, 10 pp.

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